DEFINITION: An association between two or more industrial facilities or companies in which the wastes
or by-products of one become the raw materials for another.
The Kalundborg eco industrial park in Denmark is widely considered the world’s first and most advanced
example of industrial symbiosis. Since launching in 1972, businesses in the region have continuously implemented symbiotic practices, and today there are more than 30 exchanges of water, energy and other by-products between Kalundborg municipality and eight private companies.
See also: Circular economy
See also: Sharing economy